includes the Æthikes, the Agraeoi, the Akarnanes, the Almopia, the Aones, the Aperandoi, the Athamanes, the Atindanes, the Avandes, the Boeotoi, the Chaones, the Dolopes, the Dorians, the Dryopes, the Ektines, the Eordaea, the Epeioi, the Eurytanes, the Gephyraeoi, the Idonoi, the Ionians, the Kikones, the Krestones, the Lapithes, the Leleges, the Lyngistes, the Magnites, the Malieis, the Molossoi, the Mygdones, the Oetaeoi, the Orestes, the Paetoi, the Pelasgoi, the Perraivoi, the Sea Peoples, the Temmikes, the Thesprotians, the Visaltes, the Vistones, the Yandes.
DANYA / DANNUNA They have been identified with the Danaoi, mentioned in Homer's Iliad; another, far-fetched explanation is that they are related to the early Irish Celts (Tuatha de Danaan) - but perhaps not completely far-fetched: variants on "Danu" (the name of an ancient river Goddess) appear all over Europe [Denmark, Danube River, Don River] - there may early links. Some historians and acheologists have suggested that the Danya invaded Canaan in alliance with the Philistines but then joined the Israelite tribal confederation as the tribe of Dan. The original territory of that tribe bordered Philistia, and the Philistines seemed to bear a particular grudge against the Danites, who eventually relocated to the Galilee.
EKWESH This name is very similar to the Hittite name for Greeks (Acheans). Very little is known about them. Alternatively, some have hypothesized that the Ekwesh were the Minoan-age inhabitants of the Aegean island of Cos.
KARKISA A minor Sea People nation mentioned in passing in several sources and apparently coming from southern Anatolia. They may have been allied with the Lukka.
LUKKA These are believed to have hailed from Lycia, and probably returned there after several unsuccessful invasions of Egypt.
LABU While not Sea Peoples per se, this coalition of Libyan tribes participated in the attacks on Egypt, in conjunction with the Meshwesh and their allies. Libya (a term once used by Greeks to describe all of Africa) derives its name from them. See also Libu, for a later kingdom established by a subsequent incursion by these people into the Nile region. They are depicted in Egyptian artwork as having fair skin, red hair and blue eyes. Unlike their allies the Meshwesh, they wore kilts and were uncircumcised. The Sheshonqid (22nd) dynasty of Egypt is believed to derive from a different tribal group.
MESHWESH This nation arrived on the Libyan coast from the north and invaded Egypt in alliance with Libyan tribes, in particular the Tehenu and Temehu under a King called Merirey (see Libya and, just above, Labu) in the reign of Merneptah (roughly 1230 BCE). They were also part of the Sea People coalition (along with the Tjekker and the Philistines) who invaded Egypt during the reign of Rameses III (early 1100s BCE). Their ultimate fate is unknown. In Classical times, Herodotus described a tribe in Libya called "Maxyes" who claimed a Trojan ancestry, but he goes on to note that his report is based on hearsay. Egyptian artwork, interestingly enough, clearly depicts Meshwesh captives as being circumcised.
- Merirey (see also Libya).......................c. 1230-1220 BCE
- Buyuwawa the Libyan ? ...........................fl. c. 1200 BCE ?
- Buyuwawa is spoken of as the founder of the Sheshonqid dynasty, which succeeded in gaining control over Egypt 945-715. See Libya.
PELESHET These are the Philistines who settled in the southern coast of Canaan and established the pentapolis of Gaza, Gath, Ekron, Ashkelon and Ashdod. They may have invaded Canaan originally in alliance with the Israelites, who settled in the inland areas, but any collegiality quickly disappeared if Biblical records are anything to go by. The name Palestine, given to Judea by the Romans after the Jewish Wars, is believed to be derived from Philistine, although some scholars have suggested that it actually (ironically) comes from a derogatory Greek epithet for Jew.
SHARDANA (Sherden)Formerly, it was thought that this people migrated out of the Hellenic region, crossed the central Mediterranean, and conquered Sardinia, which still bears a variant of their name. Recently though, it has been suggested that the migration was in the opposite direction - that they were aboriginal inhabitants of Sardinia who traveled eastward into the Hellenic littoral. A Sardinian origin is supported further by discoveries on that island of horned helmets similar to those depicted on Egyptian images of Shardana warriors. The Shardana are the first of the Sea Peoples to appear in the historical record, as Egyptian mercenaries mentioned in the Amarna letters. They later fought in both the Egyptian army and the armies of the Sea People coalitions.
SHEKELESH This is believed to be the group that sacked and destroyed Ugarit. They were part of the coalition that fought Merneptah and later Rameses III. The Medinet Habu relief depicts a Shekelesh prince, who is shown bearded, with a thin prominent nose and a swept back turban, which some scholars believe to be hair. Not much else is known about them.
TJEKKER / SHEKELESH The Tjekker are of uncertain origin, but they raided Egypt repeatedly before settling in northern Canaan. They may originally have been the Teucri, a tribe inhabiting northwest Anatolia around Troy. They conquered the city-state of Dor and turned it into a Tjekker kingdom. They are one of the few of the Sea Peoples for whom a ruler's name is recorded - in the papyrus account of Wenamun, an Egyptian priest...Besides the Dorite Tjekker, some scholars believe that the Tjekker may have been connected in some way with the Israelite tribe of Menasseh. See also the Teucri, in northwest Anatolia.
- Beder (Prince of Dor)...............................c. 1050 BCE
- To Macedonia.......................................191-185
- Dor fell to King David of Israel in the 990's, and the Tjeker are not mentioned after that date.
TYRSENNOI May be related to the Etruscans, but any connection is sheer speculation - Hellenic peoples knew of them; the "Tyrhennian" Sea - derived from a Greek term - still survives as a name for the waters between Tuscany and Corsica. Beyond that, note that the Etruscan word for themselves was "Rasena".
WESHESH Their origins are unknown, though there is some evidence that they may have come from the area of Caria. Some have theorized that they, like the Danya, became part of the Israelite confederacy (as the tribe of Asher).